Processor Affinity

There was a time when 32 processors for 32-bit Windows seemed, if not beyond conception, then surely beyond dreaming about as ever being a real-world experience. And so from the start, Windows tracked its use of processors for various purposes—which processors are active, which processors is this thread allowed to run on—just as set or clear bits in an integer type as wide as a general register. The Device Driver Kit (DDK) for Windows NT 3.51 has


which the DDK for Windows XP modified to


in anticipation of 64-bit Windows. And there things stood until Windows 7 introduced the processor group as a soft path to supporting potentially very many more processors. For many purposes, the use of processors is confined to one group, which can be taken as understood, so that the simple KAFFINITY remains perfectly well suited to tracking the use. For cases where the group must be specified, Microsoft introduced the GROUP_AFFINITY structure and some exported functions for working with it:

For its internal accounting, however, the kernel does of course need a bitmap of all processors in all groups. For this, it has the undocumented KAFFINITY_EX structure and a set of exported functions for working with it so that it can (mostly) be kept opaque:

For the limited but common purpose of enumerating the set bits, the kernel has the undocumented KAFFINITY_ENUMERATION_CONTEXT, again with supporting functions:

None of the few dozen functions listed above are documented. All are declared, however, in the NTOSP.H from the Windows Driver Kit (WDK) for Windows 10.